Detergent specific decontamination effect in the whole process of decontamination in general have the following: 1)
Chemical decontamination: according to the determination of dirt on clothes containing 15% ~ 30% of free fatty acids, these compounds with basic material in the detergent, is transformed into fatty acid sodium, sodium fatty acids can not only dissolve in the water and remove from the clothes, but also can take away part of the dirt.
Roll away from the role: dirty clothes are soaking in detergent solution, surfactant molecules in detergent can gradually to the dirt and infiltration between the fibers and directional adsorption according to its genetic polarity.
On the one hand, make the dirt between the fiber and greatly reduce the interfacial tension, combining began to relax;
Dirt on the other hand, due to the adsorption of surfactant molecules under a kind of extrusion force, coupled with the buoyancy of water and dirt that is away from the fiber into the washing liquid.
Emulsification: after the oil adsorption of surfactant molecules, reduce interfacial tension between oil and water, the oil dispersed in the water needed for the work is also reduced, along with certain mechanical force, oil and water emulsification, forming oil-in-water emulsion.
Sometimes oily dirt removal does not need to mechanical energy can be emulsified.
Solubilization: detergent solution of the surfactant concentration reaches a critical micelle concentration, surfactant molecules in solution can be gathered to form micelles.
Micellar generally gathered by 20 ~ 100 surfactant molecules, some micelles containing hundreds of surfactant molecules.
Most of these molecules in the micelle are lipophilic group and hydrophilic group inward and outward into a spherical micelles, there are also relatively pro-oil base, a layer of a layered micelle stacked.
The micelle structure can not soluble in water of the material into the micelle and make it as micelle 'solution' to the water, and produce solubilization.
General 1 mol, surfactant can solubilization 0.
2 to 0.
4 mol, fatty acids or oily matter such as toluene.
Solubilization is related to the molecular structure of the surfactant, on the strength of the hydrophobic group long molecules is stronger, the hydrocarbon chain molecules containing unsaturated hydrocarbon chain is stronger;
The critical micelle concentration of non ionic surfactant generally smaller than anionic surfactant, so solubilization.
Practice proves that the combined solubilization capabilities of surfactants are relatively single.
Adding inorganic electrolytes can make the solution of the critical micelle concentration decreased, solubilization dirt increase, so usually in detergent formulation and a large number of inorganic salts.
Dispersion effect: the surfactant molecules can scatter solid particles suspended in water solution, to become a stable colloidal solution, when the surfactant of solid particles of wetting force sufficient to destroy the cohesion between the solid particles, the solid particles will be broken into granules and suspending in the aqueous solution.
Some of the detergent organic fertilizer (
Such as carboxymethyl cellulose, etc. )
And inorganic fertilizer (
Such as bubble mineralization alkali and phosphate, etc. )
Can improve the stability of solid particles in suspension.
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